A PROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF ECLAMPSIA AT A REGIONAL HOSPITAL, EASTERN ETHIOPIA: INCIDENCE, CLINICAL CORRELATES, MANAGEMENT AND PREGNANCY OUTCOME.

Wondimu Gudu, Delayehu Bekele

Abstract


Objective: The aims of the study were to determine the incidence of eclampsia and describe its clinical correlates and pregnancy outcomes.

Patients and Methods: A one-year prospective study of 93 cases of eclampsia using a structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic data, clinical presentation, work-up, management and feto-maternal outcomes was done at Karamara Regional Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia.

Results: The incidence of eclampsia was 2.7% (93 in 3500 deliveries). Most of the cases were young (45%), nulliparous (70%) women who had not received any antenatal care (63%). Almost two thirds of the women (n=57, 61%) presented with eclampsia in antepartum, whereas 26 cases (28%) occurred in intrapartum, and there were 10 cases (11%) with eclampsia postpartum. Preceding symptoms were reported in 78.5 % of patients with severe hypertension recorded in 66%. The average gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks. Hydralazine was used for emergency control of hypertension in 91% of the cases. Magnesium was administered to 92 (99%) of the patients. Delay greater than 12h from admission to delivery occurred in 45% of the women with eclampsia. Cesarean section (CS) was performed in 14 (17%) and instrumental delivery in 15 (18%). The maternal and perinatal case fatality rates of eclampsia were 34.7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusion: The incidence of eclampsia was very high with corresponding high maternal and perinatal deaths. The presentation of patients was late and the work up and management of cases substandard. Hence capacity building of health facilities, implementation of standard guidelines and criteria based auditing are recommended.

Keywords: eclampsia , pregnancy outcomes, eastern Ethiopia.

 


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