Negussie Deyessa


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus is a public health problem in sub-Saharan countries, with complex determinant factors. Intimate partner violence, although known to associate with acquiring human immunodeficiency virus understanding how it relates to sexual risk behaviors is important.

Objective: To assess the relationship of human immunodeficiency virus with intimate partner violence as related to risky-sexual behaviors.

Methods: A facility based case control study was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus positive and negative women visiting antenatal care. A total of 128 positive and 382 negative women from the prevention service of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in selected health facilities in Addis Ababa were included.  A standardized and pretested questionnaire was used to assess the experience of intimate partner violence, and sexual behaviors of women and their spouses.

Result: Physical violence during lifetime is associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection status. Besides, sexual violence by strangers is associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Risky sexual behaviors, represented by having multiple partners, transactional sex and having a casual partner, were associated with intimate partner violence as well as human immunodeficiency virus infection status. Similarly, report of experiencing symptoms of sexually transmitted infection and having suspected unfaithful spouse were associated with intimate partner violence and human immunodeficiency virus infection status.

Conclusion: The study showed that intimate partner violence could be associated directly and in directly with human immunodeficiency virus infection by increasing exposure to risky sexual behaviors and considered as a resolution for disparate sexual behavioral. Therefore, prevention and control interventions against intimate partner violence could play significant role in prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

 Key words: Intimate Partner Violence, sexual-behavior, human immunodeficiency virus infection, Addis Ababa


Full Text:



Sanders EJ: HIV-1 testing of young febrile adults seeking care for fever in sub-Sahara Africa. International health 2014, 6(2):77-8.

Nkomazana O, Tshitswana D: Ocular complications of HIV infection in sub-Sahara Africa. Current HIV/AIDS reports 2008, 5(3):120-5.

Neville Miller A, Rubin DL: Factors leading to self-disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis in Nairobi, Kenya: people living with HIV/AIDS in the Sub-Sahara. Qualitative health research 2007, 17(5):586-98.

Cock KM, Weiss HA: The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 2000, 5(7):A3-9.

Fowler MG, Melnick SL, Mathieson BJ: Women and HIV. Epidemiology and global overview. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America 1997, 24(4):705-29.

Sato PA, Chin J, Mann JM: Review of AIDS and HIV infection: global Epidemiology and statistics. AIDS 1989,3 Suppl 1:S301-7.

Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen HA, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts CH: Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. Lancet 2006, 368(9543):1260-9.

Dunkle H, L. L. Violence against Women: an Integrated, Ecological framework. Violence Against Women 1998, 4(3):262-90.

Andersson N, Cockcroft A, Shea B: Gender-based Violence and HIV: Relevance for HIV prevention in hyperendemic countries of southern Africa. AIDS 2008, 22 Suppl 4:S73-86.

Dunkle KL, Jewkes RK, Brown HC, Gray GE, McIntryre JA, Harlow SD: Gender-based violence, Relationship power, and risk of HIV Infection in women Attending Antenatal Clinics in South Africa. Lancet 2004, 363(9419):1415-21.

Jewkes RK, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Shai N: Intimate partner Violence, Relationship power inequity, and incidence of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a Cohort study. Lancet 2010, 376(9734):41-8.

Krug EG, Mercy JA, Dahlberg LL, Zwi AB: (World report on violence and health). Biomedica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud 2002, 22 Suppl 2:327-36.

Breiding MJ, Black MC, Ryan GW: Chronic disease and Health Risk Behaviors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence-18 U.S. states/territories, 2005. Annals of epidemiology 2008, 18(7):538-44.

Beattie T, Bhattacharjee P, Ramesh B: Violence against Female Sex Workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and Reductions in Violence following an Intervention program. BMC Public Health 2010, 11(10):476.

Gossaye Y, Deyessa N, Berhane Y, et al: Women´s Health and Life Events Study in Rural Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev 2003, 17(Special Issue): 1-51.

Abeya S, Afework M, Yalew A: Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Western Ethiopia: Prevalence, patterns, and associated factors. BMC Public Health 2011, 11:913.

Deyessa N, Berhane Y, Ellsberg M, Emmelin M, Kullgren G, Hogberg U: Violence against Women in relation to Literacy and area of Residence in Ethiopia. Global Health Action 2010, 3(2070).

Bekele AB, Van Aken MA, Dubas JS: Sexual violence victimization among Female Secondary School Students in Eastern Ethiopia. Violence and victims 2011, 26(5):608-30.

Anderson C, Spataro SE, Flynn FJ: Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence. The Journal of applied psychology 2008, 93(3):702-10.

Federal Ministry of Health: Health and Health Related Indicators, Federal Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia 2000 E.C. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Federal Minstry of Health; 2013.

HIV/AIDS Prevention Control Office: Guidelines for PMTCT of HIV in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Federal Ministry of Health; 2007.

MOH/HAPCO, AAU, CSA, EPHA: HIV/AIDS Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) Ethiopia 2005, Round Two; 2007.

WHO: Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Research on Domestic Violence Against Women. Geneva, Switzerland 2001.

Stockman JK, Campbell JC, Celentano DD: Sexual Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors among a Nationally representative sample of Heterosexual American women: the importance of sexual coercion. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 2010, 53(1):136-43.

Koenig LJ, Whitaker DJ, Royce RA, Wilson TE, Ethier K, Fernandez MI: Physical and sexual violence during pregnancy and after delivery: a prospective multistate study of women with or at risk for HIV infection. American journal of public health 2006, 96(6):1052-9.

Kayibanda JF, Bitera R, Alary M: Violence toward women, men's sexual risk factors, and HIV infection among women: findings from a national household survey in Rwanda. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 2012, 59(3):300-7.

Cohen M, Deamant C, Barkan S, et al. Domestic violence and childhood sexual abuse in HIV-infected women and women at risk for HIV. American journal of public health 2000, 90(4):560-5.

Parcesepe AM, Toivgoo A, Chang M, et al. Physical and sexual violence, childhood sexual abuse and HIV/STI risk behaviour among alcohol-using women engaged in sex work in Mongolia. Global public health 2015, 10(1):88-102.

Burgos-Soto J, Orne-Gliemann J, Encrenaz G, et al: Intimate Partner Sexual and Physical Violence among Women in Togo, West Africa: prevalence, Associated Factors, and the specific role of HIV infection. Glob Health Action 2014, 7:23456.

Duran B, Oetzel J, Parker T, Malcoe LH, Lucero J, Jiang Y: Intimate partner violence and alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among American Indian women in primary care. American Indian and Alaska native mental health research 2009, 16(2):11-27.

Stene LE, Dyb G, Jacobsen GW, Schei B: Psychotropic drug use among women exposed to intimate partner violence: A population-based study. Scandinavian journal of public health 2010, 38(5 Suppl):88-95.

Stuart GL, Temple JR, Follansbee KW, Bucossi MM, Hellmuth JC, Moore TM: The role of drug use in a conceptual model of intimate partner violence in men and women arrested for domestic violence. Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2008, 22(1):12-24.

Dunkle KL, Jewkes RK, Brown HC, Gray GE, McIntryre JA, Harlow SD: Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection. Social science & medicine 2004, 59(8):1581-92.

Bobashev GV, Zule WA, Osilla KC, Kline TL, Wechsberg WM: Transactional sex among men and women in the south at high risk for HIV and other STIs. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 2009, 86 Suppl 1:32-47.

Qin S, Li AS, Ma MJ, et al: Unprotected Sex with Casual Partners: A Neglected Source of HIV Transmission among Members of the Yi Minority in Southwestern China. Biomedical and environmental sciences: BES 2014, 27(10):824-31.

Yang Y, Luan RS, Liu P, Wu CL, Zhou Y, Chen W: Casual sex and concurrent sexual partnerships among young people from an Yi community with a high prevalence of HIV in China. Asian journal of andrology 2012, 14(5):758-65.

Couture MC, Soto JC, Akom E, Joseph G, Zunzunegui MV: Violence against intimate partners and associations with inconsistent condom use among clients of female sex workers in Haiti. Public health reports 2010, 125(6):896-902.

Panchanadeswaran S, Frye V, Nandi V, Galea S, Vlahov D, Ompad D: Intimate partner violence and consistent condom use among drug-using heterosexual women in New York City. Women & health 2010, 50(2):107-24.

Raj A, Reed E, Miller E, Decker MR, Rothman EF, Silverman JG: Contexts of condom use and non-condom use among young adolescent male perpetrators of dating violence. AIDS care 2007, 19(8):970-973.

Gielen AC, Ghandour RM, Burke JG, Mahoney P, McDonnell KA, O'Campo P: HIV/AIDS and Intimate Partner Violence: intersecting women's health issues in the United States. Trauma, violence & abuse 2007, 8(2):178-98.

Machtinger EL, Wilson TC, Haberer JE, Weiss DS: Psychological trauma and PTSD in HIV-positive women: a meta-analysis. AIDS and behavior 2012, 16(8):2091-100.

Wyatt G, Myers H, Williams J, Kitchen C, Loeb T, Carmona J, Wyatt L, Chin D, Presley N: Does a history of trauma contribute to HIV risk for women of color? Implications for Prevention and Policy. American journal of public health 2002, 92(4):660-5.

Decker MR, Miller E, McCauley HL, Recent partner violence and Sexual and Drug-related STI/HIV risk among Adolescent and Young Adult Women attending Family Panning Clinics. Sexually transmitted infections 2014, 90(2):145-9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Kirkos Sub-City, Woreda 05
Roosevelt street, Infront of Africa Union main gate
Tel: +251 115 533742 Fax: +251 115 151005
P.O.Box 2179 Email:
Copyright © Ethiopian Medical Association 2018 All rights Reserved

Powered by OJS & Designed and Hosted by MAKE Enterprise